Everyone’s estate plan is unique, but these six documents are key in ensuring your final wishes are carried out and you end life on terms you have set out.
1. Financial power of attorney. This document authorizes an "attorney-in-fact" to act on your behalf in financial matters. The most common power of attorney, a "durable" one, remains in effect if you're incapacitated. Another variation, which is known as a "springing" power of attorney, transfers control to the designated person only if you're incapacitated.
The attorney-in-fact may have broad powers. They may be enabled to buy or sell personal property, for example, or the role may be limited to specified tasks. This power of attorney expires when you die.
2. Health-care power of attorney. This also authorizes another person to make decisions on your behalf if you're unable to do so—in this case, involving medical care, carrying out your end-of-life wishes, and related matters. Here, the attorney-in-fact is typically your spouse, a child, or a sibling. Like a financial power of attorney, it may be broad or limited and expires at your death.
3. Living will. While a health-care power of attorney may authorize someone to help with end-of-life decisions, establishing what will happen when you're dying is the sole purpose of a living will. Depending on the laws of your state, you may be able to use a living will to say whether or not you want life-sustaining treatment if you are terminally ill or grievously injured.
Also depending on state law, a health-care power of attorney and a living will may be combined into one document. In other states, a living will may supplement a health-care power of attorney, and both documents can be coordinated with other medical directives or proxies.
4. Trusts. There are many reasons for creating and funding trusts. A trust could be used to prevent family squabbles or impose restraints on spendthrift family members. One variation, a living trust, often supplements a will. Because assets in a living trust don't go through probate court proceedings, it keeps the disposition of your final affairs private and asset transfers through a trust are harder to contest than assets that go through the public probate process. The probate process can also be lengthy.
Though there are myriad variations, all trusts are either revocable or irrevocable. With a revocable trust, you retain control over the assets. While that's not the case with an irrevocable trust, it can protect assets from creditors and remove them from your taxable estate.
5. Final Letter. A final letter can be used to write down a plan for your funeral arrangements, who is to inherit precious family heirlooms, works of art, personal items, and to bestow final blessings and salutations to the people who matter most to you.
6. Will. Your will establishes how your assets will be distributed after you die and who will have custody of any minor children. You also could use it for other purposes such as making charitable donations and creating trusts.
If you die without a will—"intestate," in legal parlance—the laws of your state will determine who gets your assets and assumes guardianship of young children. As the centerpiece of your estate plan, this is definitely one tool you can't be without.
Drawing up documents is left to legal professionals, but coordinating the drafting of these documents with your attorney to ensure your final objectives in life are met after your death is often the province of a trusted financial advice professional, as is assuming powers over your financial affairs should you ever become incapacitated and quarterbacking a team of professionals.
How to best invest your final assets in the people and beliefs you hold most dear requires your most careful consideration and planning, and is not a responsibility we take on lightly. If you have questions about going out on your own terms that you set out, please don’t hesitate to contact us.
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